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(provinces) of Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, and Lleida.
The autonomous community of Catalonia occupies a triangular area in the northeastern corner of Spain.
The Esquerra won a sweeping victory in the municipal elections of 1931, and two days later its leader proclaimed a Catalan Republic.
A compromise was worked out with the central government, and in September 1932 the statute of autonomy for Catalonia became law.
Catalonia played a prominent role in the history of Republican Spain and in the Civil War (1936–39).
Catalonia’s growing demand for petroleum products led to the expansion of Tarragona’s petroleum refineries.In the War of the Spanish Succession, Catalonia declared its support for the archduke Charles and resisted the accession of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain, but in 1714 it was completely subjugated by the forces of the Bourbon Philip V, who abolished the Catalan constitution and autonomy. Catalan nationalism became a serious force after 1876, when the defeat of the Carlists led the church to transfer its support to the movement for autonomy.Catalan nationalism had two major strands: a conservative, Roman Catholic one and a more liberal, secular one.Though it retained its autonomy and Generalitat (assembly), by the 17th century its conflict of interest with Castile, along with the decline of the Spanish monarchy’s prestige, led to the first of a series of Catalan separatist movements.In 1640 Catalonia revolted against Spain and placed itself under the protection of Louis XIII of France, but the revolt was quelled in the 1650s.