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The British and the Iraqis formalized the relationship between the two nations with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922.With Faisal's ascension to the throne, the Iraqi Army became the Royal Iraqi Army (RIr A). This was well below the 6,000 men requested by the Iraqi monarchy and even less than the British set limit of 4,500.In early April 1941, during World War II, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and members of the anti-British "Golden Square" launched a coup d'état against the current government.Prime Minister Taha al-Hashimi resigned and Rashid Ali al-Gaylani took his place as Prime Minister.
In addition, the British landed forces at Basra and the Iraqis demanded that these forces be removed.
This was in accordance with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930, whereby the United Kingdom would end its official mandate on the condition that the Iraqi government would allow British advisers to take part in government affairs, allow British military bases to remain, and a requirement that Iraq assist the United Kingdom in wartime.
Upon achieving independence in 1932, political tensions arose over the continued British presence in Iraq, with Iraq's government and politicians split between those considered pro-British and those who were considered anti-British.
Rashid Ali also proclaimed himself chief of a "National Defence Government." He did not overthrow the monarchy, but installed a more compliant Regent.
He also attempted to restrict the rights of the British which were granted them under the 1930 treaty.